Monday, April 02, 2012

美國和加拿大華裔在中國面对文化衝擊 / Culture Shock - Chinese Americans (Canadians) in China

文化衝擊 (維基百科)
文化衝擊,又叫文化震驚、文化休克。(英語:culture shock),是指一個人或者一個組織身處不同國家的文化或不一樣的環境中而經受的一種困惑、焦慮的狀況,未必會產生嚴重後果。該辭在1954年由Kalervo Oberg首先提出。Michael Winkelman等其他學者隨後展開了對文化衝擊的研究工作。文化衝擊的研究領域是跨文化交際。最近有研究者宣稱,文化衝擊對跨文化旅居者的確有許多正面影響,如提昇自信與自我激勵等。文化衝擊的原素常出現於電影題材,例如《表姐,你好嘢!》。



1. 蜜月期:在這個階段,體驗者通常有遊客一樣的心境---情緒激動興奮,看到任何事物都很好奇,就算遇到文化差異也以積極的眼光看待。對於異國風情有着羅曼蒂克的幻想。这种心态更加会因为当地导游,学校,公司或者访问机构初期的热情招待而产生。

2. 矛盾/掙扎/隔離期:在這個階段,體驗者開始逐漸意識到生活在異國的不便---主要體現在對於語言,交通,購物,飲食等等日常生活的小細節上。因此體驗者會在心理上受挫敗感。對於「新家」和「舊家」都有說不清的矛盾心態。對於新家,體驗者有着排斥和冷眼相待的心態。比如說,總是刻意扭曲當地人的行為和語言,潛意識的對當地人產生種族偏見。對於「舊家」,也因為有種報喜不報憂的心態,以至於與之前的關係網絡脫節。在這個階段,體驗者容易抑鬱。

例子: 留學生在異國他鄉時,可能會:極度地思念家鄉。竭力地躲開那些自己不適應的公眾場合。身體不適,睡眠不安。精神壓抑,感覺無助。對他國文化抱有敵對情緒。如不喜歡、不習慣他國禮儀(如禮節性擁抱)。

3. 適應/融入期: 經歷了低潮一般的掙扎期,體驗者開始逐漸接受了新環境和新的思維方式。他/她可以意識到其實人都是社會的產物所以當他站在一個新的文化和歷史的視角看問題,穿着當地人的鞋走當地的路時,他/她對於在第二階段產生的偏見逐漸消除。同時,語言的進步,人際關係的加強也會讓受到文化衝擊的體驗者更加自信起來。最後,體驗者能夠為「新家」作貢獻也被「新家」的成員所接受。這樣就開始了建立新生活的良好周期。大部分人在這個階段自我定義為多元化人因為他們能夠同時從多個文化背景出發看待,解釋和處理問題。
Below is the video doc entitled "Culture Shock - Chinese Americans in China" uploaded onto YouTube by StephyChung8 on Nov 20, 2011:
Young Chinese-Americans are coming to China in increasing numbers, some 30 years after their parents made the reverse journey to America. Why is that? Is it a pragmatic response to the recent economic downturn? Is it a wistful search for identity? Or is it something more?

Stephy Chung sits down with fellow expatriate Chinese-Americans including writer, musician and Director of International Communications for Baidu, Kaiser Kuo, to get their stories on why they've chosen to live and work in China. She also speaks with Professor Jinzhao Li of Beijing Foreign Studies University about her recent study on the identity transformation of Chinese-Americans in China.

Producer: Stephy Chung
Script: Stephy Chung, Steve George

Below is an article posted on (a pro-China org)

“Culture Shock – Chinese Americans in China” April 5th, 2012 by DeWang
This is a thought-provoking two-part documentary, titled, “Culture Shock – Chinese Americans in China,” produced by Stephy Chung featuring Chinese Americans’ experiences in China with Beijing Foreign University Professor Li Jinzhao (Center for Diaspora Studies) providing analysis from an identity point of view. Professor Li says that Chinese Americans in China are “constantly weighing the values [Chinese and American] and trying to decide which is better.” The documentary also features Kaiser Kuo, who explains how these Chinese Americans could channel their energy and perhaps embrace this idea of dual culturalism, which then allows them to bridge China and America.

Kuo is Director of International Communications for Baidu and spends part of his time engaging Western journalists covering China. Given the lack of scathing coverage by Western media about Baidu (with so much junk about everything ‘China’ and ‘Chinese’ in general), perhaps Kuo’s dual culturalism has merits. It seems to work for Baidu after all.

Chinese Americans who felt torn between the two sets of values or felt discomforted by any of the dimensions in the identities Professor Li speaks of, Kuo offers a solution. The challenge there is of course where to draw the line – how much of the values from the Chinese experience and from the American experience does one embrace?

For example, the American (and European) experience was one of tyranny by the monarchies, and hence distrust for governments. Their colonial domination of the world shielded them from pillage and exploitation, so they lack appreciation for the need for a strong government to repel foreign invaders. That’s precisely the Chinese experience in the last few centuries. The Chinese experience desires stability and unity, and above all, a strong government to block external meddlers. How does one draw the line?

For the most part, the Chinese Americans featured in the documentary generally seems to be embracing the Chinese culture while in China whereas while in America they were pressured to distance from their first generation Chinese parents. They are all working in China now due to growing economic opportunities there, and in order to maximize career success, they naturally must learn more Chinese culture and values.

My personal conclusion is therefore simple: the strength of Chinese culture and values on the global stage really comes from China’s economic might. Water flows because of gravity. China’s economic might is the gravity.

(I should point out that this general topic of identity has been visited before in the article, “What does it mean to be Chinese?” by Buxi and is part of our Featured Posts section.)
1. 維基百科/文化衝擊
2. 中国博客: “探索和谐-為中國說句公道話”'s April 5th, 2012 article by DeWang
3. YouTube: List of videos posted by 中国博客: “探索和谐-為中國說句公道話”

(Disclaimer: Posting of info from other sources does not constitute direct or indirect endorsement from lotusandcedar)

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